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Bench Scale Studies for the EPA Ferrate Project

Sampling and laboratory treatment of 17 different raw waters, each representing a municipal source water. These are dosed in the laboratory with varying levels of ferrate and subject to full treatment. Each system has its own unique water quality and treatment needs. Six of these will be selected for further testing at lab pilot-scale. Refer to the Bench-scale Testing Plan for more detail.


Bench-scale Testing Plan for EPA Ferrate
# Source Sampling Date Notes Results
P1 Lantern Hill, CT   pre-tests  
P2 Atkins Reservoir, MA   pre-tests report
1 Palmer, MA 11/29/2012   report
2 Lake Houston, TX 1/3/2013 special protocol  
3 Readsboro, VT 2/28/2013 DBP issues  
4 Chester, MA ? ???    
5 Hadley, MA 4/10/2013 Mn only  
6 Leicester, MA 6/21/2013 Arsenic  
7 Catamont-Bolton, VA 6/29/2013 high DOC  
8 Holton (Kickapoo), KS 7/1/2013    
9 Stockbridge, MA ~718/2013    
10 South Deerfield, MA? March 2014?    
12 Holliston, MA ?      
13 St. Armand, QUE ?      
14 Seekonk, MA ?      
15 FL sulfide impacted ?      
16 Potawatomi, KS ?      
17 Rutland, VT ?      
18 Tewksbury, MA ?      
19 PA WW impacted ?      



            Bulk samples will be collected from each of the tier 1 utilities and treated both with and without ferrate under a variety of conditions to test for treatment performance.  Chemical usage can be assessed by comparing the necessary usage rate of chemicals under the ferrate scenario (i.e., ferric salts and chlorine) vs the usage rate from the existing plant.

            A volume of 40 liters will be collected from each raw or partially-treated waters (collected just prior to planned point of addition of ferrate) and transported to the UMass or Haskell laboratories for testing.  Once at UMass/Haskell the water will be subject to a series of bench-scale treatments.  An experimental control will be run that follows the full-scale treatment plant in terms of chemical doses, order of addition, process sequence and reaction times.  Non-ferrate experimentals will follow the control sequence but incorporate alternative coagulant dosing so that a range of doses is examined.  If the plant under investigation doesn’t use ferric salts, a set of experimental runs will be added where ferric chloride is used instead and a range of ferric doses will be used.  The ferrate experiments will, of course, include application of ferrate (in pure form).  Dose will be a variable to be explored as will pH.  Tests will be run to determine natural organic matter concentrations and character (e.g., DOC, UV abs), particles (e.g., turbidity), inorganic contaminants (e.g., Fe, Mn), trace organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides, PPCPs, EDCs) and residual ferrate.  Following final disinfection, chlorination byproducts will be determined (e.g., THMs, HAAs). 


For more on Analytical Protocols for this project click on:

Laboratory Tests Analytical Methods
Ferrate Treatment Ferrate Residual
DBP Precursor Testing TOC


This project is funded through the USEPA's STAR program. It is partnered with Haskell Indian Nations University.Logo