Principles and Overview - LC/MS Methods - LC Methods

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Principles and Overview: Major Books, Reports & Review Papers on Oxyanion Analysis
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LC/MS Methods
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Hu, C.W., Lee, H., Chen, J.L., Li, Y.J. and Chao, M.R. (2013) Optimization of global DNA methylation measurement by LC-MS/MS and its application in lung cancer patients. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405(27), 8859-8869.
  Global analyses of DNA methylation contribute important insights into biology and the wide-ranging role of DNA methylation. We describe the use of online solid-phase extraction and isotope-dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous measurement of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-medC) and 2'-deoxycytidine (dC) in DNA. With the incorporation of isotope internal standards and online enrichment techniques, the detection limit of this method was estimated to be as low as 0.065 pg which enables human global DNA methylation detection using only picogram amounts of DNA. This method was applied to assess the optimal amounts of enzymes required for DNA digestion regarding an accurate global DNA methylation determination and completeness of digestion and to determine global methylation in human tumor adjacent lung tissue of 79 lung cancer patients. We further determined methylated (N7-methylguanine (N7-meG), O (6)-methylguanine (O (6)-meG), and N3-methyladenine (N3-meA)) and oxidized DNA lesions (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG)) in lung cancer patients by LC-MS/MS. Optimization experiments revealed that dC was liberated from DNA much more readily than 5-medC by nuclease P1 and alkaline phosphatase (AP) in DNA, which could lead to an error in the global DNA methylation measurement following digestion with insufficient enzymes. Nuclease P1 showed more differential activity for 5-medC and dC than AP. Global DNA methylation levels in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients were similar in the range of 3.16-4.01 %. Global DNA methylation levels were not affected by smoking and gender and were not correlated with N7-meG or 8-oxodG in lung cancer patients. Levels of O (6)-meG and N3-meA were however found to be undetectable in all lung tissue samples.
Wang, X.L., Suo, Y.S., Yin, R.C., Shen, H.Q. and Wang, H.L. (2011) Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for accurate quantification of global DNA methylation in human sperms. Journal of Chromatography B-Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 879(19), 1647-1652.   Aberrant DNA methylation in human sperms has been proposed to be a possible mechanism associated with male infertility. We developed an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of global DNA methylation level in human sperms. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used in MS/MS detection for accurate quantification of DNA methylation. The intra-day and inter-day precision values of this method were within 1.50-5.70%. By using 2-deoxyguanosine as an internal standard, UPLC-MS/MS method was applied for the detection of global DNA methylation levels in three cultured cell lines. DNA methy-ltransferases inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine can significantly reduce global DNA methylation levels in treated cell lines, showing the reliability of our method. We further examined global DNA methylation levels in human sperms, and found that global methylation values varied from 3.79% to 4.65%. The average global DNA methylation level of sperm samples washed only by PBS (4.03%) was relatively lower than that of sperm samples in which abnormal and dead sperm cells were removed by density gradient centrifugation (4.25%), indicating the possible aberrant DNA methylation level in abnormal sperm cells. Clinical application of UPLC-MS/MS method in global DNA methylation detection of human sperms will be useful in human sperm quality evaluation and the study of epigenetic mechanisms responsible for male infertility
Li, X.N. and Franke, A.A. (2011) High-throughput and cost-effective global DNA methylation assay by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta 703(1), 58-63.
  An affordable and fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the accurate and precise determination of global DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood. Global DNA methylation extent was expressed as the ratio of methylated 2'-deoxycytidine (5MedC) to 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG), which were obtained after DNA extraction and hydrolysis and determined by positive electrospray LC-ESI-MS/MS. The cost-effective internal standards (15)N(3)-dC and (15)N(5)-dG were incorporated for the accurate quantification of 5MedC and dG, respectively. The desired nucleoside analytes were separated and eluted by LC within 2.5 min on a reverse phase column with a limit of detection of 1.4 femtomole on column for 5MedC. Sample preparation in 96-well format has significantly increased the assay throughput and filtration was found to be a necessary step to assure precision. Precision was performed with repeated analysis of four DNA QC sample over 12 days, with mean intra- and inter-day CVs of 6% and 11%, respectively. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison with a previously reported method showing a mean CV of 4% for 5 subjects analyzed. Furthermore, application of the assay using a benchtop orbitrap LCMS in exact mass full scan mode showed comparable sensitivity to tandem LCMS using multiple reaction monitoring
Choi, J.Y., James, S.R., Link, P.A., McCann, S.E., Hong, C.C., Davis, W., Nesline, M.K., Ambrosone, C.B. and Karpf, A.R. (2009) Association between global DNA hypomethylation in leukocytes and risk of breast cancer. Carcinogenesis 30(11), 1889-1897.
  Global DNA hypomethylation may result in chromosomal instability and oncogene activation, and as a surrogate of systemic methylation activity, may be associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: Samples and data were obtained from women with incident early-stage breast cancer (I-IIIa) and women who were cancer free, frequency matched on age and race. In preliminary analyses, genomic methylation of leukocyte DNA was determined by measuring 5-methyldeoxycytosine (5-mdC), as well as methylation analysis of the LINE-1-repetitive DNA element. Further analyses used only 5-mdC levels. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of breast cancer in relation to amounts of methylation. Results: In a subset of samples tested (n = 37), 5-mdC level was not correlated with LINE-1 methylation. 5-mdC level in leukocyte DNA was significantly lower in breast cancer cases than healthy controls (P = 0.001), but no significant case-control differences were observed with LINE-1 methylation (P = 0.176). In the entire data set, we noted significant differences in 5-mdC levels in leukocytes between cases (n = 176) and controls (n = 173); P value < 0.001. Compared with women in the highest 5-mdC tertile (T3), women in the second (T2; OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 0.84-2.65) and lowest tertile (T1; OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 1.65-4.94) had higher risk of breast cancer (P for trend < 0.001). Among controls only and cases and controls combined, only alcohol intake was found to be inversely associated with methylation levels. Conclusion: These findings suggest that leukocyte DNA hypomethylation is independently associated with development of breast cancer.
Song, L.G., James, S.R., Kazim, L. and Karpf, A.R. (2005) Specific method for the determination of genomic DNA methylation by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry 77(2), 504-510.
  Herein we report a novel method for determining genomic DNA methylation that utilizes liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to measure 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine levels following enzymatic hydrolysis of genomic DNA. LC separation of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine from the four deoxyribonucleosides, the four ribonucleosides, and 5-methyl-2'-cytidine, a RNA methylation product, has been achieved within 15 min. In combination with ESI-MS/MS detection, the reported method is highly specific and extremely sensitive with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.2 fmol and a quantification linearity range from 1 fmol to 20 pmol. Genomic DNA methylation was expressed as the ratio of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine to 2'-deoxyguanosine and was determined directly using 2'-deoxyguanosine as the internal standard. Because deoxycytidine methylation typically ranges from 2 to 6% in mammalian genomes, and pharmacological or genetic manipulations have not achieved levels lower than 0.1%, we validated the assay for methylation levels ranging from 0.05 to 10%. Importantly, both RNA contamination and incomplete DNA hydrolysis had no appreciable effect on 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine quantification. LOD studies indicate that only 4 ng of DNA is required for this assay. This LOD should permit the use of this method for applications having limiting amounts of DNA that were not previously candidates for global genomic DNA methylation analysis, e.g., clinical trial samples, or cells collected by laser capture microdissection.



LC Methods
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