Reviews - Epidemiology -Toxicity of Mixtures - Toxicity of DBPs - Toxicity Mechanisms - Halobenzoquinones

Single DBP - Other

(See also: DBP Degradation)


Major Reports & Review Papers on Health Effects of DBPs
Citation Notes Abstract
Richardson, S.D., Fasano, F., Ellington, J.J., Crumley, F.G., Buettner, K.M., Evans, J.J., Blount, B.C., Silva, L.K., Waite, T.J., Luther, G.W., McKague, A.B., Miltner, R.J., Wagner, E.D. and Plewa, M.J. (2008) Occurrence and Mammalian Cell Toxicity of Iodinated Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water. Environmental Science & Technology 42(22), 8330-8338.
  An occurrence study was conducted to measure five iodo-acids (iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid) and two iodo-trihalomethanes (iodo-THMs), (dichloroiodomethane and bromochloro-iodomethane) in chloraminated and chlorinated drinking waters from 23 cities in the United States and Canada. Since iodoacetic acid was previously found to be genotoxic in mammalian cells, the iodo-acids and iodo-THMs were analyzed for toxicity.A gas chromatography (GC)/negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (MS) method was developed to measure the iodo-acids; iodo-THMs were measured using GC/high resolution electron ionization-MS with isotope dilution. The iodo-acids and iodo-THMs were found in waters from most plants, at maximum levels of 1.7 mu g/L (iodoacetic acid), 1.4 ug/L (bromoiodoacetic acid), 0.50 mu g/L ((Z)-3-bromo-3-iodopropenoic acid), 0.28 mu g/L ((E)-3-bromo-3-iodopropenoic acid), 0.58 mu g/L ((E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid), 10.2 mu g/L (bromochloroiodomethane), and 7.9 mu g/L(dichloroiodomethane). Iodo-acids and iodo-THMs were highest at plants with short free chlorine contact times (<1 min), and were lowest at a chlorine-only plant or at plants with long free chlorine contact times (>45 min). Iodide levels in source waters ranged from 0.4 to 104.2 ug/L(when detected), but there was not a consistent correlation between bromide and iodide. The rank order for mammalian cell chronic cytotoxicity of the compounds measured in this study, plus other iodinated compounds, was iodoacetic acid > (E)-3-bromo-2-iodopropenoic acid > iodoform > (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid > (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid > diiodoacetic acid > bromoiodoacetic acid > (E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid > bromodiiodomethane > dibro-moiodomethane > bromochloroiodomethane approximate to chlorodi-iodomethane > dichloroiodomethane. With the exception of iodoform, the iodo-THMs were much less cytotoxic than the iodo-acids. Of the 13 compounds analyzed, 7 were genotoxic; their rank order was iodoacetic acid >> diiodoacetic acid > chlorodiiodomethane > bromoiodoacetic acid > E-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid > (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid > (E)-3-bromo-2-iodopropenoic acid. In general, compounds that contain an iodo-group have enhanced mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as compared to their brominated and chlorinated analogues.
Richardson, S.D., Plewa, M.J., Wagner, E.D., Schoeny, R. and DeMarini, D.M. (2007) Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: A review and roadmap for research. Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research 636(1-3), 178-242.   Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed when disinfectants (chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, or chloramines) react with naturally occurring organic matter, anthropogenic contaminants, bromide, and iodide during the production of drinking water. Here we review 30 years of research on the occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of 85 DBPs, I I of which are currently regulated by the U.S., and 74 of which are considered emerging DBPs due to their moderate occurrence levels and/or toxicological properties. These 74 include halonitromethanes, iodo-acids and other unregulated halo-acids, iodo-trihalomethanes (THms), and other unregulated halomethanes, halofuranones (MX [3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone] and brominated MX DBPs), haloamides, haloacetonitriles, tribromopyrrole, aldehydes, and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and other nitrosamines. Alternative disinfection practices result in drinking water from which extracted organic material is less mutagenic than extracts of chlorinated water. However, the levels of many emerging DBPs are increased by alternative disinfectants (primarily ozone or chloramines) compared to chlorination, and many emerging DBPs are more genotoxic than some of the regulated DBPs. Our analysis identified three categories of DBPs of particular interest. Category I contains eight DBPs with some or all of the toxicologic characteristics of human carcinogens: four regulated (bromodichloromethane, dichloroacetic acid, dibromoacetic acid, and bromate) and four unregulated DBPs (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, NIX, and NDMA). Categories 2 and 3 contain 43 emerging DBPs that are present at moderate levels (sub- to low-mu g/L): category 2 contains 29 of these that are genotoxic (including chloral hydrate and chloroacetaldehyde, which are also a rodent carcinogens); category 3 contains the remaining 14 for which little or no toxicological data are available. In general, the brominated DBPs are both more genotoxic and carcinogenic than are chlorinated compounds, and iodinated DBPs were the most genotoxic of all but have not been tested for carcinogenicity. There were toxicological data gaps for even some of the I I regulated DBPs, as well as for most of the 74 emerging DBPs. A systematic assessment of DBPs for genotoxicity has been performed for similar to 60 DBPs for DNA damage in mammalian cells and 16 for mutagenicity in Salmonella. A recent epidemiologic study found that much of the risk for bladder cancer associated with drinking water was associated with three factors: THM levels, showering/bathing/swimming (i.e., dermal/inhalation exposure), and genotype (having the GSTT1-1 gene). This finding, along with mechanistic studies, highlights the emerging importance of dermal/ inhalation exposure to the THMs, or possibly other DBPs, and the role of genotype for risk for drinking-water-associated bladder cancer. More than 50% of the total organic halogen (TOX) formed by chlorination and more than 50% of the assimilable organic carbon (AOC) formed by ozonation has not been identified chemically. The potential interactions among the 600 identified DBPs in the complex mixture of drinking water to which we are exposed by various routes is not reflected in any of the toxicology studies of individual DBPs. The categories of DBPs described here, the identified data gaps, and the emerging role of dermal/inhalation exposure provide guidance for drinking water and public health research.


Epidemiological Literature
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Toxicity of Mixtures and Treated Waters
Citation Notes Abstract

Plewa, M.J., Wagner, E.D. and Mitch, W.A. (2011) Comparative Mammalian Cell Cytotoxicity of Water Concentrates from Disinfected Recreational Pools. Environmental Science & Technology 45(9), 4159-4165.

  Disinfection of recreational pools is essential to prevent outbreaks of infectious disease. Despite the health benefits of swimming, recent research demonstrated an association between the application of disinfectants to recreational pods and adverse health outcomes. Pool waters are extreme cases of disinfection that differ in important respects from disinfected drinking waters. Pool waters are continuously exposed to disinfectants over average residence times extending to months. Disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors in pools include natural humic substances deriving from the tap water source plus inputs from bathers through urine, sweat, hair, skin, and consumer products including sunscreens and cosmetics. This study presents a systematic, chronic in vitro mammalian cell cytotoxicity analysis of different recreational waters with varied environmental conditions that were derived front a common tap water source. Recreational waters were significantly more toxic than their tap water source. Because trihalomethane concentrations are similar between tap waters and pool waters, using trihalomethanes to monitor exposure in epidemiological studies may not be the best metric. Of primary importance for cytotoxicity were illumination conditions. Pools subjected to a combination of ultraviolet light and free chlorine disinfection indoors, or outdoor sunlight exposure exhibited lower cytotoxicity than their indoor counterparts disinfected with free chlorine. Temperature and total organic carbon content, as an indirect measure of DBP precursors, were less important. Previous research on the same samples demonstrated the genotoxicity of an indoor pool disinfected with bromochlorodimethylhydantoin; the cytotoxicity of this sample was confirmed in the present study. While the association of reduced toxicity with illumination indicates that the agents responsible are photolabile, their identity is unclear. As a broad measure of adverse biological responses, cytotoxicity may be a useful metric to gauge the health impacts of alterations in pool operating conditions.

Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Pure DBPs
(related info may be found in: DBP Degradation and Non-regulated DBP pages)
Citation Notes Abstract
Plewa, M.J., Simmons, J.E., Richardson, S.D. and Wagner, E.D. (2010) Mammalian Cell Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of the Haloacetic Acids, A Major Class of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 51(8-9), 871-878. HAAs The haloacetic acids (HAAs) are disinfection by-products (DBPs) that are formed during the disinfection of drinking water, wastewaters and recreational pool waters. Currently, five HAAs [bromoacetic acid (BAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), chloroacetic acid (CAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA); designated as HAA5] are regulated by the U.S. EPA, at a maximum contaminant level of 60 mu g/L for the sum of BAA, DBAA, CAA, DCAA, and TCAA. We present a comparative systematic analysis of chronic cytotoxicity and acute genomic DNA damaging capacity of 12 individual HAAs in mammalian cells. In addition to the HAA5, we analyzed iodoacetic acid (IAA), diiodoacetic acid (DiAA), bromoiodoacetic acid (BIAA), tribromoacetic acid (TBAA), chlorodibromoacetic acid (CDBAA), bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA), and bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA). Their rank order of chronic cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells was IAA > BAA > TBAA > CDBAA > DIAA > DBAA > BDCAA > BCAA > CAA > BIAA > TCAA > DCAA. The rank order for genotoxicity was IAA > BAA > CAA > DBAA > DIAA > TBAA > BCAA > BIAA > CDBAA. DCAA, TCAA, and BDCAA were not genotoxic. The trend for both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity is iodinated HAAs > brominated HAAs > chlorinated HAAs. The use of alternative disinfectants other than chlorine generates new DBPs and alters their distribution. Systematic, comparative, in vitro toxicological data provides the water supply community with information to consider when employing alternatives to chlorine disinfection. In addition, these data aid in prioritizing DBPs and their related compounds for future in vivo toxicological studies and risk assessment.
Plewa, M.J., Muellner, M.G., Richardson, S.D., Fasanot, F., Buettner, K.M., Woo, Y.T., McKague, A.B. and Wagner, E.D. (2008) Occurrence, synthesis, and mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of haloacetamides: An emerging class of nitrogenous drinking water disinfection byproducts. Environmental Science & Technology 42(3), 955-961.
Haloacetamides The haloacetamides, a class of emerging nitrogenous drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBPs), were analyzed for their chronic cytotoxicity and for the induction of genomic DNA damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The rank order for cytotoxicity of 13 haloacetamides was DIAcAm > IAcAm > BAcAm > TBAcAm > BIAcAm > DBCAcAm > CIAcAm > BDCAcAm > DBAcAm > BCAcAm > CAcAm > DCAcAm > TCAcAm. The rank order of their genotoxicity was TBAcAm > DIAcAm IAcAm > BAcAm > DBCAcAm > BIAcAm > BDCAcAm > CIAcAm > BCAcAm > DBAcAm > CAcAm > TCAcAm. DCAcAm was not genotoxic. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were primarily determined by the leaving tendency of the halogens and followed the order I > Br > > CI. With the exception of brominated trihaloacetamides, most of the toxicity rank order was consistent with structure-activity relationship expectations. For di- and trihaloacetamides, the presence of at least one good leaving halogen group (I or Br but not CI) appears to be critical for significant toxic activity. Log P was not a factor for monohaloacetamides but may play a role in the genotoxicity of trihaloacetamides and possible activation of dihaloacetamides by intracellular GSH and -SH compounds. With the advent of the U.S. EPA Stage 2 DBP regulations, water utilities are considering the use of disinfectants that are alternatives to chlorine. The use of these alternative disinfectants will shift the distribution of DBP chemical classes. The emergence of new, highly toxic iodinated, nitrogenous DBPs, as illustrated by the discovery of bromoiodoacetamide as a new DBP, underscores the importance of comparative toxicity studies to assist in the overall goal of safer drinking water practice.
Plewa, M.J., Wagner, E.D., Jazwierska, P., Richardson, S.D., Chen, P.H. and Mckague, A.B. (2004) Halonitromethane Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts: Chemical Characterization and Mammalian Cell Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity. Environmental Science & Technology 38(1), 62-68.   Halonitromethanes are drinking water disinfection byproducts that have recently received a high priority for health effects research from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Our purpose was to identify and synthesize where necessary the mixed halonitromethanes and to determine the chronic cytotoxicity and the acute genotoxicity of these agents in mammalian cells. The halonitromethanes included bromonitromethane (BNM), dibromonitromethane (DBNM), tribromonitromethane (TBNM), bromochloronitromethane (BCNM), dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM), bromodichloronitromethane (BDCNM), chloronitromethane (CNM), dichloronitromethane (DCNM), and trichloronitromethane (TCNM). Low- and high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the mixed chloro-bromo nitromethanes in finished drinking waters, and analytical standards that were not commercially available were synthesized (BDCNM, DBCNM, TBNM, CNM, DCNM, BCNM). The rank order of their chronic cytotoxicity (72 h exposure) to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was DBNM > DBCNM > BNM > TBNM > BDCNM > BCNM > DCNM > CNM > TCNM. The rank order to induce genomic DNA damage in CHO cells was DBNM > BDCNM > TBNM > TCNM > BNM > DBCNM > BCNM > DCNM > CNM. The brominated nitromethanes were more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogues. This research demonstrated the integration of the procedures for the analytical chemistry and analytical biology when working with limited amounts of sample. The halonitromethanes are potent mammalian cell cytotoxins and genotoxins and may pose a hazard to the public health and the environment.
Plewa, M.J., Wagner, E.D., Richardson, S.D., Thruston, A.D., Woo, Y.T. and McKague, A.B. (2004) Chemical and biological characterization of newly discovered lodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts. Environmental Science & Technology 38(18), 4713-4722.   lodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were recently uncovered in drinking water samples from source water with a high bromide/iodide concentration that was disinfected with chloramines. The purpose of this paper is to report the analytical chemical identification of iodoacetic acid (IA) and other iodoacids in drinking water samples, to address the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of IA in Salmonella typhimurium and mammalian cells, and to report a structure-function analysis of IA with its chlorinated and brominated monohalogenated analogues. The iodoacid DBPs were identified as iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (Z)- and (E)-3-bromo-3-iodopropenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid. IA represents a new class (iodoacid DBPs) of highly toxic drinking water contaminants. The cytotoxicity of IA in S. typhimurium was 2.9x and 53.5x higher than bromoacetic acid (BA) and chloroacetic acid (CA), respectively. A similar trend was found with cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells; IA was 3.2x and 287.5x more potent than BA and CA, respectively. This rank order was also expressed in its genotoxicity with]A being 2.6x and 523.3x more mutagenic in S. typhimurium strain TA100 than BA and CA, respectively.]A was 2.0x more genotoxic than BA and 47.2x more genotoxic than CA in CHO cells. The rank order of the toxicity of these monohalogenated acetic acids is correlated with the electrophilic reactivity of the DBPs. IA is the most toxic and genotoxic DBP in mammalian cells reported in the literature. These data suggest that chloraminated drinking waters that have high bromide and iodide source waters may contain these iodoacids and most likely other iodo-DBPs. Ultimately, it will be important to know the levels at which these iodoacids occur in drinking water in order to assess the potential for adverse environmental and human health risks.


Toxicity Mechanisms
Citation Notes Abstract
Pals, J.A., Ang, J.K., Wagner, E.D. and Plewa, M.J. (2011) Biological Mechanism for the Toxicity of Haloacetic Acid Drinking Water Disinfection Byproducts. Environmental Science & Technology 45(13), 5791-5797. Supporting Iinfo   The halogenated acetic acids are a major class of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) with five haloacetic acids regulated by the U.S. EPA. These agents are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. The decreasing toxicity rank order of the monohalogenated acetic acids (monoHAAs) is iodo- > bromo- >> chloroacetic acid. We present data that the monoHAAs inhibit glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the same rank order as above. The rate of inhibition of GAPDH and the toxic potency of the mono HAAs are highly correlated with their alkylating potential and the propensity of the halogen leaving group. This strong association between GAPDH inhibition and the monoHAA toxic potency supports a comprehensive mechanism for the adverse biological effects by this widely occurring class of regulated DBPs.
Anichina, J., Zhao, Y.L., Hrudey, S.E., Le, X.C. and Li, X.F. (2010) Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Characterization of Interactions of Newly Identified Water Disinfection Byproducts Halobenzoquinones with Oligodeoxynucleotides. Environmental Science & Technology 44(24), 9557-9563.   Four halobenzoquinones, 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 2,6-dichloro-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, and 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, were recently identified as drinking water disinfection byproducts. Understanding their interactions with biomolecules could provide useful insights into their potential toxic effects. We report here electrospray ionization mass spectrometry characterization of the interactions between these new halobenzoquinone disinfection byproducts and oligodeoxynucleotides. The study demonstrates that 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone exhibits much stronger binding to single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides than chlorobenzoquinones. The binding affinity of 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone to oligodeoxynucleotides is similar to that of ethidium bromide, a well-known intercalator and carcinogen. Tandem mass spectrometry characterization confirms the formation of 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone binding to oligodeoxynucleotides. Collision-induced dissociation analysis of these adducts demonstrates neutral loss and charge separation, suggesting that 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone binds to oligodeoxynucleotides through partial intercalation and H-bonding modes. The three chlorobezoquinones also form 1:1 adducts with the oligodemmucleotides, but their binding to the oligodeoxynucleotides was much weaker compared to that of 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone. The relative binding affinity of the studied disinfection byproducts to oligodeoxynucleotides is in the order of 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone>>2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone > 2,6-dichloro-3methyl-1,4-benzoquinone similar to 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, indicating potential structural effects on the interactions of halobenzoquinones with oligodeoxynucleotides.
Muellner, M.G., Attene-Ramos, M.S., Hudson, M.E., Wagner, E.D. and Plewa, M.J. (2010) Human Cell Toxicogenomic Analysis of Bromoacetic Acid: A Regulated Drinking Water Disinfection By-product. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 51(3), 205-214.   The disinfection of drinking water is a major achievement in protecting the public health. However, current disinfection methods also generate disinfection by-products (DBPs). Many DBPs are cytotoxic, genotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic and represent an important class of environmentally hazardous chemicals that may carry long-term human health implications. The objective of this research was to integrate in vitro toxicology with focused toxicogenomic analysis of the regulated DBP, bromoacetic acid (BAA) and to evaluate modulation of gene expression involved in DNA damage/repair and toxic responses, with nontransformed human cells. We generated transcriptome profiles for 168 genes with 30 min and 4 hr exposure times that did not induce acute cytotoxicity. Using qRT-PCR gene arrays, the levels of 25 transcripts were modulated to a statistically significant degree in response to a 30 min treatment with BAA (16 transcripts upregulated and nine downregulated). The largest changes were observed for RAD9A and BRCA1. The majority of the altered transcript profiles are genes involved in DNA repair, especially the repair of double strand DNA breaks, and in cell cycle regulation. With 4 hr of treatment the expression of 28 genes was modulated (12 upregulated and 16 downregulated); the largest fold changes were in HMOX1 and FMO1. This work represents the first nontransformed human cell toxicogenomic study with a regulated drinking water disinfection by-product. These data implicate double strand DNA breaks as a feature of BAA exposure. Future toxicogenomic studies of DBPs will further strengthen our limited knowledge in this growing area of drinking water research.


(most HBQ references are in: Non-Regulated DBPs, see also: Degradation, DBP Occurrence and DBP Analysis)
Citation Notes Abstract
Du, H.Y., Li, J.H., Moe, B., McGuigan, C.F., Shen, S.W. and Li, X.F. (2013) Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Damage Induced by Halobenzoquinones to T24 Bladder Cancer Cells. Environmental Science & Technology 47(6), 2823-2830.
  Four halobenzoquinones (HBQs), 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), 2,6-dichloro-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DCMBQ), 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ), and 2,6-dibromobenzoquinone (DBBQ), have been recently confirmed as disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water; however, their toxicological information is scarce. Here, we report that HBQs are cytotoxic to T24 bladder cancer cells and that the IC50 values are 95 mu M for DCBQ, 110 mu M for DCMBQ, 151 mu M for TCBQ, and 142 mu M for DBBQ, after a 24-h exposure. The antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduces the cytotoxicity induced by the four HBQs, supporting the hypothesis that oxidative stress contributes to the cytotoxicity of HBQs. To further explore the oxidative mechanisms of cytotoxicity, we examined HBQ-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in T24 cells, and measured 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyls, and malondialdehyde (MDA) adducts of proteins, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids, respectively. All four HBQs generated intracellular ROS in T24 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. HBQs also produced 8-OHdG in genomic DNA of T24 cells, with the highest levels of 8-OHdG induced by DCMBQ, Protein carbonylation was significantly increased in T24 cells that were incubated with each of the four HBQs for 24 h. However, MDA adduct formation, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was not affected by any of the four HBQs tested. These results suggest that the ROS-induced oxidative damage to DNA and protein carbonylation are involved in the observed toxicity of HBQs in T24 cells.
Anichina, J., Y.L. Zhao, S.E. Hrudey, A. Schreiber, and X.F. Li. 2011. Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of the Reactivity of Structurally Related Bromo-methyl-benzoquinones toward Oligonucleotides. Analytical Chemistry 83:8145-8151.
  We report the use of electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) as a tool for rapid screening of structurally related chemicals toward oligonucleotides using the binding of five bromobenzoquinones with single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) oligonucleotides (ODNs) as a model. We found that these compounds interact differentially with oligonucleotides depending on the extent of their bromination and methylation. Three dibromobenzoquinones, 2,6-dibromo-14-benzoquinone (2,6-DBBQ), 2,5-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone (2,5-DBBQ), and 2,5-dimethyl-3,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone (DMDBBQ), bound to ssODN to form 1:1 adducts, and the binding constant of DMDBBQ bound to ssODN Was 100-fold lower than those of 2,6-DBBQ and 2,5-DBBQ to ssODN, indicating that methyl groups hindered interactions of the bromoquinones with ODNs. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the 1:1 and 1:2 adducts of ODN with 2,6-DBBQ and 2,5-DBBQ demonstrated neutral loss of DBBQ and charge separations. Incubation of two tetrabromobenzo-quinones (TBBQ), 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone and 3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-1,2-benzoquinone, with the same ODNs did not form any adducts of TBBQ with ssODN or dsODN; however, bromide ODNs were detected. Fragmentation of the bromide ODN adducts showed loss of the HBr molecule, supporting the presence of bromide on ODNs. High-resolution MS and MS/MS analysis of the mixtures of dinucleotides (AA, GG, CC, and TT) and TBBQ confirmed the presence of bromide on the dinucleotides, supporting the transfer of bromide to ODNs through interaction with TBBQ This study presents evidence of differential interactions of structurally related bromo and methyl-benzoquinones with oligonucleotides and demonstrates a potential application of ESI-MS/MS analysis of chemical interactions with ODN for rapid screening of the reactivity of other structurally related environmental contaminants toward DNA.
Lai, Y.Q., M.H. Lu, S.H. Lin, H.Z. Wu, and Z.W. Cai. 2011. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric characterization of DNA adducts formed by bromobenzoquinones. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 25:2943-2950.
  Bromobenzoquinones (BBQs) represent a class of reactive metabolites of various aromatic contaminants with bromine-containing substituents, including bromobenzene, bromophenols, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Recently, 2,6-dibromobenzoquinone also has been detected directly from drinking water. The alternation of the genome caused by covalent binding of chemicals or their metabolites to DNA provides a viable mechanism for carcinogenicity. In the present study, electrospray ionization coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS), triple quadrupole MS or quadrupole time-of-flight MS was applied for the analysis of DNA adducts formed by BBQs. The study demonstrated 2-monobromobenzoquinone and 2,6-dibromobenzoquinone could covalently bind to deoxyguanosine (dG) and DNA in vitro. The chemical structures of the DNA adducts were confirmed by accurate mass values, collision-induced fragmentation tandem mass spectra as well as isotopic patterns. Generally, the reaction mechanism for the DNA adduction involved Michael addition between the electron-deficient carbon from the quinone and the nucleophilic exocyclic nitrogen from the dG followed by reductive cyclization with loss of a small molecule such as H2O, or HBrO. It was of particular interest to note that some adducts were generated from the reaction of one dG molecule with two BBQ molecules. The obtained results provided new information for assessing the potential cancer risk associated with bromobenzene, bromophenols, PBDEs and BBQs.


Citation Notes Abstract



Large DBP Studies with some Method Development
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