Principles and Overview - Applications to Water - General Treatment - Electrocoagulation - Other

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Principles and Overview: Major Books, Reports & Review Papers on Electrochemical Methods
Citation Notes Abstract

Fundamentals of Electrochemistry (Bagotsky, 2006)

Chapt 1-7 seem most appropriate to Env Eng applications

Fundamentals of Electrochemistry provides the basic outline of most topics of theoretical and applied electrochemistry for students not yet familiar with this field, as well as an outline of recent and advanced developments in electrochemistry for people who are already dealing with electrochemical problems.

The content of this edition is arranged so that all basic information is contained in the first part of the book, which is now rewritten and simplified in order to make it more accessible and used as a textbook for undergraduate students. More advanced topics, of interest for postgraduate levels, come in the subsequent parts.

This updated second edition focuses on experimental techniques, including a comprehensive chapter on physical methods for the investigation of electrode surfaces. New chapters deal with recent trends in electrochemistry, including nano- and micro-electrochemistry, solid-state electrochemistry, and electrocatalysis. In addition, the authors take into account the worldwide renewal of interest for the problem of fuel cells and include chapters on batteries, fuel cells, and double layer capacitors.


Applications to Water
Citation Notes Abstract

Electrochemistry for the Environment (Comninellis and Chen, Eds., 2010)

Chapt 1-12 seem most appropriate to Env Eng applications

Wastewater treatment technology is undergoing a profound transformation due to far-reaching changes in regulations governing the discharge and disposal of hazardous pollutants.Electrochemistry for the Environment first lays down the fundamentals of environmental electrochemistry, introducing the basic techniques in selecting electrode materials and fabricating them, followed by the theoretical analysis of the electrochemical processes and the green electrochemical operation. Then it discusses the electrochemical technologies in water/wastewater treatment using BDD before moving on to an examination of the established wastewater treatment technologies such as electro-coagulation, -flotation, and-oxidation. Additionally, emerging technologies such as electrophotooxidation, electrodisinfection, and electrochemical technologies in sludge and soil treatment are analyzed. This book is an excellent reference for electrochemists, chemical engineers, environmental engineers, civil engineers, and also for those in industry evaluating and implementing new technologies.

Handbook of Chlor-Alkali Technology, Volume 1 (O'Brien et al., 2005)


Despite commercial setbacks in recent years, the production of chlorine and alkalis still is of enormous importance, and chlorine and caustic soda both are among the ten largest volume chemical products in the world. The number of final end uses for the products of a chlor-alkali plant perhaps cannot be matched by any other single plant.

Volume I contains introductory and historical information, followed by the fundamentals of electrochemistry pertinent to chlor-alkali cells. The topics addressed include thermodynamics, kinetics of electrode reactions and electrocatalysis, experimental techniques, energy consumption and its components, and the basic aspects of mercury, diaphragm, and membrane cells.


Electrochemical Water Treatment: General
Citation Notes Abstract

Electrochemical Water and Wastewater Treatment (Martinez-Huitle, Rodigo and Scialdone, Eds., 2018)

  The book starts with the description of the Historical Developments and Fundamentals of electrochemical water and wastewater treatment technologies, incluing processes such as electrochemical reduction, electrocoagulation, electroflotation, and electrochemical oxidation. In this description, a large portion of the attention is focused on electrodes, the key component of the electrochemical cell. Different types of electrodes that have been developed in recent years are described in terms of preparation methods, properties and performance in the electrochemical treatment of wastewater. Recent advances in electrocatalysis related to generation of the powerful hydroxyl radical, as well as other strong oxidants (persulfate, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and ferrate), are also extensively examined. Likewise, the fast destruction of pollutants mediated by electrogenerated active chlorine active chlorine, by electro-Fenton or by photo assisted electrochemical methods is also a matter of interest. An important section is also devoted to novel electrochemical technologies (hybrid and sequential processes as well as microbial fuel cells) that can be used for treating water and wastewaters. Once the fundamentals are described, the second part of the book (Applications of Electrochemical Technologies for Decontamination and Disinfection of Water) deals with innovations sought in research labs. Special emphasis is placed on production of
strong oxidizing species which can promote the fast mineralization of organics contained in wastewater and enable water disinfection. In addition, the main aspects of other novel, combined technologies involving photocatalysis, adsorption, nanofiltration, microwaves, and ultrasounds, among others, are also pointed out. Finally, the very novel and promising bioelectrochemical technologies are discussed as well. The third part of the book deals with the Chemical and Technological Advantages and Disadvantages of Electrochemical Approaches’ Applicability, summarizing the research and development in the area of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for water and wastewater treatment. Specific topics covered include a discussion of stable anode materials, advantages and recent innovations, challenges associated with electrochemical advanced oxidation processes’ implementation, and future research and engineering needs. Examples that aim to use electrochemical technologies as new alternatives for treatment of real effluents were also described, as were future perspectives for these approaches. The last part of the book deals with the possibilities of combining Renewable Energies with Electrochemical Technologies towards wastewater treatment. The nature and characteristics of a solar panel, along with the connections of solar plants to a wide variety of electrochemical processes, are described, pointing out the principal research directions for each application. Some remarkable examples of the use of other renewable energies are also taken into account.

Electrochemical Water Treatment Methods (Sillanpaa & Shestakova, 2017)


Simon et al. (2018) Current to Clean Water – Electrochemical Solutions for Groundwater, Water, and Wastewater Treatment  

Electrochemical technologies for the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewaters, potable water, and groundwater, are presented, focusing on the main water constituents: inorganics, organics, micropollutants, and microorganisms. Removal of inorganic compounds by electrodialysis, electrocoagulation, and capacitive deionization as well as removal of organics and micropollutants by electrosorption, advanced oxidation processes, and anodic oxidation with boron-doped diamond electrodes are reviewed. Electricity can be generated by degradation of organic compounds in microbial fuel cells and dehalogenation by cathodic reduction minimizes toxic substances in water. The disinfection of different types of water is also presented and it is shown that electrochemical methods offer versatile approaches to contribute to an sustainable future water management.

Feng et al. (2016) Electrochemical technologies for wastewater treatment and resource reclamation   Research developments in environmental electrochemistry and their potential to contribute to a cleaner environment are reviewed here for wastewater treatment applications. Most environmental pollutants can be successfully eliminated or converted to non-toxic materials by one or more processes, including electrochemical oxidation, electrochemical reduction, electrocoagulation and electrocoagulation/flotation, electrodialysis, and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes. Specific examples of applications for pollutant removal and reclamation of wastewater are given for the different processes, along with research needs and improvements for commercial application of these electrochemical processes



Citation Notes Abstract

Electrocoagulation: Fundamnetals and Perspectives (Barrea-Diaz et al., 2018) Chapt 3 in Martinez-Huitle et al.

Review This chapter describes one of the fundamental electrochemical processes used in wastewater treatment: electrocoagulation. This process takes place when a direct current is applied to metallic electrodes (anode and cathode) submerged in wastewater. There are two main electrochemical reactions that takes place in the process: cations (Fe2 + or Al3 +) are liberated into the solution at the anode and water reduces to hydrogen gas (bubbles) and OH− on the cathode. Colloidal particles in wastewater are often negatively charged, so when cations are introduced, the colloidal solution destabilizes and the particles aggregate, forming larger particles called flocs. Flocs can be easily separated by sedimentation and flotation due to the electrogenerated bubbles. This chapter devotes special attention to the theoretical Faradaic model that describes the mass transfer when applying energy to the electrodes, and experimental deviations from the model are also discussed. In order to explain the chemical reactions that take place in a solution, the predominant chemical species distributions in an aqueous solution during the electrocoagulation process are presented. In the chapter, we present examples of using metallic electrodes (Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn) in different effluents and the pollutant removal efficiencies. Finally, the application of ozone during electrocoagulation is discussed as a promising way for enhancing the process performance.
Electrocoagulation in Water Treatment (Rondinini & Vertova, 2010), Chapt 10 in Comninellis and Chen. Review  
Electrocoagulation (excerpt from Sillanppa & Shestakova, 2017) Review  
Sandoval et al. (2019) Simultaneous removal of fluoride and arsenic from groundwater by electrocoagulation using a filter-press flow reactor with a three-cell stack F and As removal An electrocoagulation (EC) process to remove fluoride and arsenic from groundwater (fluoride 5.5 mg L−1, arsenic 50.4 μg L−1, hydrated silica 132 mg L−1, sulfate 40 mg L−1, nitrate 6.7 mg L−1, phosphate 0.55 mg L−1, hardness 23 mg L−1, alkalinity 59.0 mg L−1, pH 8.5 and conductivity 824.5 μS cm−1) was investigated. The EC was carried out in a filter-press flow reactor, containing a three-cell stack equipped with aluminum electrodes. The influence of current density (j), mean linear flow rate in the EC reactor (ur) and the co-existing ions on the fluoride and arsenic removal efficiencies was analyzed. All EC tests, performed at 0.23≤ur≤0.93 cm s−1 and 5≤j≤7mAcm−2, satisfied the World Health Organization (WHO) standard for fluoride (CF-≤1.5 mg L−1). The EC tests that satisfied the WHO standard for arsenic (CAs≤10 μg L−1) were at 0.23 cm s−1 and 6≤j≤7mAcm−2. Spectroscopic analyses on aluminum flocs showed that these are mainly composed of aluminum silicates. Fluoride replaces a hydroxyl group from aluminum flocs and arsenates adsorb on aluminum aggregates. The best EC test in terms of energy consumption (6.7 kWhm−3) was obtained at 0.23 cm s−1 and 6mA cm−2



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