The Forbes Group at the University of Massachusetts



  1. St. Jean AT, Swofford CA, Brentzel ZJ, Jan Panteli, Forbes NS. Bacterial delivery of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin causes tumor regression and necrosis in murine tumors. Molecular Therapy Website
  2. Kasinskas RW, Venkatasubramanian R, and Forbes NS. Rapid uptake of glucose and lactate, and not hypoxia, induces apoptosis in three-dimensional tumor tissue culture. Integrative Biology PDF Website
  3. Swofford CA, St. Jean AT, Panetli JT, Brentzel ZJ†, Forbes NS. 2014. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin as a protein drug that is secreted by anticancer bacteria and rapidly kills cancer cells. Biotechnology and Bioengineering PDF Website
  4. Zhang M, Swofford CA, Forbes NS. 2014. Lipid A controls the robustness of intratumoral accumulation of attenuated Salmonella in mice. International Journal of Cancer PDF Website
  5. Toley BJ, Tropeano-Lovatt Z, Harrington JL, Forbes NS. 2013. Microfluidic technique to measure intratumoral transport and calculate drug efficacy shows that binding is essential for doxorubicin and release hampers Doxil. Integr. Biol. 5:1184-96 PDF Website
  6. Dai Y, Toley BJ, Swofford CA, Forbes NS. 2013. Construction of an inducible cell-communication system that amplifies Salmonella gene expression in tumor tissue. Biotechnol Bioeng. 110:1769-81 PDF Website
  7. Toley BJ, Forbes NS. 2012. Motility is critical for effective distribution and accumulation of bacteria in tumor tissue. Integr. Biol. 4:165-76 PDF Website
  8. Toley BJ, Park J, Kim BJ, Venkatasubramanian R, Maharbiz MM, Forbes NS. 2012. Micrometer-scale oxygen delivery rearranges cells and prevents necrosis in tumor tissue in vitro. Biotechnol Prog. 28:515-25. PDF Website
  9. Toley BJ, Ganz DE, Walsh CL, Forbes NS. 2011. Microfluidic device for recreating a tumor microenvironment in vitro. J Vis Exp. DOI: 10.3791/2425. Website
  10. Ganai S, Arenas RB, Sauer JP, Bentley B, Forbes NS. 2011. In tumors Salmonella migrate away from vasculature toward the transition zone and induce apoptosis. Cancer Gene Ther. 18:457-66 PDF Website
  11. Forbes NS. 2010. Engineering the perfect (bacterial) cancer therapy. Nature Reviews Cancer. 10:785–794 PDF Website
  12. Venkatasubramanian R, Arenas RB, Henson MA, Forbes NS. 2010. Mechanistic modeling of dynamic MRI data predicts that tumor heterogeneity decreases therapeutic response. Br J Cancer. 103:486-97 PDF Website
  13. Kim BJ, Han G, Rotello VM, Forbes NS. 2010. Tuning payload delivery in tumor cylindroids using gold nanoparticles. Nat Nanotechnol. 5:465-72 PDF
  14. Hunnewell M, Forbes NS. 2010. Active and inactive metabolic pathways in tumor spheroids: determination by GC-MS. Biotechnol Prog. 26:789-96 PDF Website
  15. Ganai S, Arenas RB, Forbes NS. 2009. Tumor-targeted delivery of TRAIL using Salmonella typhimurium enhances breast cancer survival in mice. Br J Cancer. 101:1683 PDF Website
  16. Walsh CL, Babin BM, Kasinskas RW, Foster JA, McGarry MJ, Forbes NS. 2009. A multipurpose microfluidic device designed to mimic microenvironment gradients and develop targeted cancer therapeutics. Lab on a Chip. 9:545-554 PDF Website
  17. Ghosh PS, Kim CK, Han G, Forbes NS, Rotello VM. 2008. Efficient gene delivery vectors by tuning the surface charge density of amino-acid functionalized gold nanoparticles. ACS Nano. 2:2213-8 PDF Website
  18. Forbes NS. 2008. A module to foster engineering creativity: an interpolative design problem and an extrapolative research project. Chemical Engineering Education 42:166172 PDF
  19. St. Jean A, Zhang M Forbes NS. 2008. Bacterial therapies: completing the cancer treatment toolbox. Current Opinions in Biotechnology. 19:511-517 PDF Website
  20. Kim BJ, Forbes NS. 2008.Single cell sorting in cylindroids demonstrates how nutrient deprivation creates apoptotic and quiescent cell populations in tumors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 101:797-810 PDF Website
  21. Venkatasubramanian R, Henson MA, Forbes NS. 2008. Incorporating cell cycle progression and drug penetration into metabolic models of multicellular tumor spheroid growth. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 253:98–117 PDF Website
  22. Kasinskas RW, Forbes NS. 2007. Salmonella typhimurium lacking ribose chemoreceptors localize in tumor quiescence and induce apoptosis. Cancer Res. 67:3201-9 PDF Website
  23. Kim BJ, Forbes NS. 2007. Flux analysis shows that hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha minimally affects intracellular metabolism in tumor spheroids. Biotechnol Bioeng. 96:1167-82 PDF Website
  24. Ganai S, Arenas RB, Bentley B, Forbes NS. 2007. Targeting bacteriolytic therapy of solid tumors using Salmonella typhimurium. Annuls Surgical Oncology 14:71-71
  25. Forbes NS. 2006. Profile of a bacterial tumor killer. Nat. Biotech. 24:1484-1485 PDF Website
  26. Forbes NS*, Meadows AL, Clark DS, Blanch HW. 2006. Estradiol stimulates the biosynthetic pathways of breast cancer cells: detection by metabolic flux analysis. Metabolic Engineering. 8:639-652 PDF Website
  27. Venkatasubramanian R, Henson MA, Forbes NS. 2006. Incorporating energy metabolism into a growth model of multicellular tumor spheroids. J Theor Biol. 242:440-453 PDF Website
  28. Kasinskas RW, Forbes NS. 2006. Salmonella typhimurium specifically chemotax and proliferate in heterogeneous tumor tissue in vitro. Biotechnology Bioengineering, 94:710-721 PDF Website
  29. Han G, You CC, Kim BJ, Turingan RS, Forbes NS, Martin CT, Rotello VM. 2006. Light-regulated release of DNA and its delivery to nuclei by means of photolabile gold nanoparticles. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 45:3165-3169 PDF Website
  30. Hong R, Han G, Fernandez JM, Kim BJ, Forbes NS, Rotello VM. 2006. Glutathione-mediated delivery and release using monolayer protected nanoparticle carriers. J Am Chem Soc. 128:1078-9 PDF Website
  31. Pinelis M, Kasinskas RW, Borno RT, Park JH, Chu E, Forbes NS, Maharbiz MM. 2006. Microfluidic devices for the assembly and culture of three-dimensional multi-cellular constructs with diffusion-limited microenvironments. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (μTAS2006). Japan
  32. Han G, Hong R, Fernandez J, Kim BJ, Forbes NS, Rotello VM. 2006. Glutathione-mediated drug release using monolayer protected nanoparticle carriers. Abs Amer Chem Soc. 231:176
  33. Han G, You CC, Kim BJ, Forbes NS, Martin CT, Rotello VM. 2006. Light-regulated DNA transcription and delivery using photolabile gold nanoparticles. Abs Amer Chem Soc. 231:266
  34. Crichton MA, Forbes NS, Bhatia SR. 2005. USANS as a probe of large-scale structure in attractive colloidal glasses of block copolymer micelles.  MRS Symp. Proc. v. 840 - Neutron and X-Ray Scattering as Probes of Multiscale Phenomena. Q7.11.1-Q7.11.6
  35. Forbes NS, Munn LL, Fukumura D, Jain RK. 2003. Sparse initial entrapment of systemically injected Salmonella typhimurium leads to heterogeneous accumulation within tumors. Cancer Res. 63:5188-5193
  36. Helmlinger G, Sckell A, Dellian M, Forbes NS, Jain RK. 2002. Acid production in variant, glycolysis-deficient and parental tumors in vivo: support for hypothesized tumor metabolism. Clin. Cancer Res. 8:1284-1291
  37. Jain RK, Forbes NS. 2001. Can engineered bacteria help control cancer? PNAS 98:14748-14750
  38. Forbes NS, Clark DS, Blanch HW. 2001. Using isotopomer path tracing to quantify metabolic fluxes in pathway models containing reversible reactions. Biotech. Bioeng. 74:196-211
  39. Forbes NS, Clark DS, Blanch HW. 2000. Analysis of metabolic fluxes in mammalian cells. Chap 4.4 in: Schügerl K, Bellgardt KH, editors. Bioreaction Engineering: Modeling and Control. Berlin: Springer Verlag


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