Reviews - International - National - Regional - Other
|Bell, K.Y., Wells, M.J.M., Traexler, K.A., Pellegrin, M.L., Morse, A. and Bandy, J. (2011) Emerging Pollutants. Water Environment Research 83(10), 1906-1984.||Water and wastewater quality research and management pertaining to emerging pollutants, chemical or biological, for which discussion of occurrence surveys, fate and transport investigations, treatment processes, modeling, and/or toxicity/risk assessment appearing in the peer-reviewed literature during 2010, are presented.|
Daughton, C.G. (2010) Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Drinking Water: Overview of Occurrence and Significance of Human Exposure. In: Contaminants of Emerging Concern in the Environment: Ecological and Human Health Considerations. Halden, R.U. (ed), pp. 9-68.
|A comprehensive examination is presented of the data published through 2009 on the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that have been reported in finished drinking water (FDW). A synoptic review reveals that quantitative occurrence data for FDW exists for 64 APIs and miscellaneous transformation products, reported in 48 publications. Significantly, however, for these 64 substances only 17 have quantitative data from more than two reports each; only 36 have corroborative data from a second study. Almost all of the available data has been published since the year 2000. The occurrence data are organized around the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. The top four ATC classes for which the most API data have been reported are: N, C, V, and M. APIs have been reported for 7 of the 14 main ATC classes; no API has been reported for ATC classes A, B, H, L, R, or S. Some emphasis is also placed on negative data - those APIs with either data of absence or absence of data. The six most frequently reported APIs in FDW (in descending order) are: carbamazepine, ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazole, clofibric acid, gemfibrozil, and iopromide. The six APIs with roughly the most consistent highest reported concentrations are: ibuprofen, triclosan, carbamazepine, phenazone, clofibric acid, and acetaminophen. With only one exception (ibuprofen and its methyl ester metabolite), no API exceeded a concentration of 1 ppb (1 mu g/L). Also covered are some of the reported transformation products and disinfection by-products unique to APIs. Some of the less-discussed aspects of the potential ramifications for human health are also included. A clearer picture is emerging as to the extent and scope of API occurrence in drinking water, some preliminary generalizations can be drawn, and a better sense is emerging of where future research should be directed.|
|Stanford, B.D., Snyder, S.A., Trenholm, R.A., Holady, J.C. and Vanderford, B.J. (2010) Estrogenic activity of US drinking waters: A relative exposure comparison. Journal American Water Works Association 102(11), 55-65.
||This study demonstrates a relative exposure to estrogenic activity and other trace contaminants in drinking water compared with food beverage and air exposure Drinking water for nearly 28 million people in 17 US cities plus 40 food and beverage items was screened for 51 trace contaminants including suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) pharmaceuticals personal care products pesticides phytoestrogens and total in vitro estrogenic activity Only three drinking water samples exhibited measurable estrogenic activity (0 19-077 ng/L as estradiol equivalents) whereas 34 of the 40 food and beverage items had measurable estrogenic activity (median estradiol equivalents, 0 55-4,200 ng/L) On an adult, per serving basis food and beverage intake of estrogenic activity was 4-21,000 times greater than in municipal drinking water Of the literature studies available air exposure for six suspected EDCs analyzed in this study resulted in at least 30-36 000 times the exposure from drinking water|
|Mompelat, S., Le Bot, B. and Thomas, O. (2009) Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical products and by-products, from resource to drinking water. Environment International 35(5), 803-814.||Among all emerging substances in water, pharmaceutical products (PPs) and residues are a lot of concern. These last two years, the number of studies has increased drastically, however much less for water resources and drinking water than for wastewater. This literature review based on recent works, deals with water resources (surface or groundwater), focusing on characteristics, occurrence and fate of numerous PPs studied, and drinking water including water quality. Through this review, it appears that the pharmaceutical risk must be considered even in drinking water where concentrations are very low. Moreover, there is a lack of research for by-products (metabolites and transformation products) characterization, occurrence and fate in all water types and especially in drinking water.|
|Mawhinney, D.B., Young, R.B., Vanderford, B.J., Borch, T. and Snyder, S.A. (2011) Artificial Sweetener Sucralose in U.S. Drinking Water Systems. Environmental Science & Technology 45(20), 8716-8722.||The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out Of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S.|
|Carter, J.M., Kingsbury, J.A., Hopple, J.A. and Delzer, G.C. (2010) Concentration Data for Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Groundwater, Surface Water, and Finished Water of Selected Community Water Systems in the United States, 2002-10, USGS, Reston, VA.||Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and propellants; and (13) solvents. This report presents the analytical results of source-water samples from 448 community water system wells and 21 surface-water sites. This report also presents the analytical results of finished-water samples from 285 wells and 20 surface-water sites from community water systems. Results of quality-assurance/quality-control samples also are presented including data for equipment blanks, field blanks, source solution blanks, and replicate samples.|
|Benotti, M.J., Trenholm, R.A., Vanderford, B.J., Holady, J.C., Stanford, B.D. and Snyder, S.A. (2009) Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in US Drinking Water. Environmental Science & Technology 43(3), 597-603.
||The drinking water for more than 28 million people was screened for a diverse group of pharmaceuticals, potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and other unregulated organic contaminants. Source water, finished drinking water, and distribution system (tap) water from 19 U.S. water utilities was analyzed for 51 compounds between 2006 and 2007. The 11 most frequently detected compounds were atenolol, atrazine, carbamazepine, estrone, gemfibrozil, meprobamate, naproxen, phenytoin, sulfamethoxazole, TCEP, and trimethoprim. Median concentrations of these compounds were less than 10 ng/L, except for sulfamethoxazole in source water (12 ng/L), TCEP in source water (120 ng/L), and atrazine in source, finished, and distribution system water (32, 49, and 49 ng/L). Atrazine was detected in source waters far removed from agricultural application where wastewater was the only known source of organic contaminants. The occurrence of compounds in finished drinking water was controlled by the type of chemical oxidation (ozone or chlorine) used at each plant. At one drinking water treatment plant, summed monthly concentrations of the detected analytes in source and finished water are reported. Atenolol, atrazine, DEET, estrone, meprobamate, and trimethoprim can serve as indicator compounds representing potential contamination from other pharmaceuticals and EDCs and can gauge the efficacy of treatment processes.|
|EPA (2009) Occurrence of Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Wastewater From Nine Publicly Owned Treatment Works||To assess the occurrence of CECs in POTW influent and effluent, and to test and develop new analytical methods with which to measure these emerging contaminants, between September 2005 and July 2008, EPA collected samples for one day at each of nine POTWs. This study is referred to in this report as the “Nine POTW Study”, or “the Study.” The CECs in this study include the following classes of chemicals: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) - and many other categories|
|Wang, G.D., Ma, P., Zhang, Q., Lewis, J., Lacey, M., Furukawa, Y., O'Reilly, S.E., Meaux, S., McLachlan, J. and Zhang, S. (2012) Endocrine disrupting chemicals in New Orleans surface waters and Mississippi Sound sediments. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 14(5), 1353-1364.||Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), represented by steroid hormones, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and bisphenol A have been determined in four sediment cores from the Gulf of Mexico, from New Orleans surface water (Lake Pontchartrain and Mississippi River), and from the influent and effluent of a New Orleans municipal sewage treatment plant. During the five-month monitoring of selected EDCs in the Mississippi River (MR) and Lake Pontchartrain (LP) in 2008, 21 of 29 OCPs in MR and 17 of 29 OCPs in LP were detected; bisphenol A was detected in all of the samples. Steroid hormones (estrone, 17 beta-estradiol and 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol) were detected occasionally. Total EDC (OCPs + PCBs + steroid hormones + bisphenol A) concentrations in the two surface water samples were found to vary from 148 to 1112 ng L-1. Strong correlation of the distribution of total OCPs, total PCBs and total EDCs between solid and water phases was found in LP, while moderate or no correlation existed in MR. OCPs, PCBs, steroid hormones, and bisphenol A were all detected in the ocean sediments, and total EDCs were measured in the range of 77 to 1796 ng g(-1) dry sediment weight. The EDCs were also found in untreated and treated municipal sewage samples with a removal efficiency of 83% for OCPs but no removal efficiency for 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol.|
|Valcarcel, Y., Alonso, S.G., Rodriguez-Gil, J.L., Gil, A. and Catala, M. (2011) Detection of pharmaceutically active compounds in the rivers and tap water of the Madrid Region (Spain) and potential ecotoxicological risk. Chemosphere 84(10), 1336-1348.
||Concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the order of ng L(-1) to sg L(-1) have been reported worldwide in waste, fluvial and even drinking water, raising concern about the efficacy of the currently employed waste water treatments in the elimination of this kind of compounds. Despite ranking 29th in terms of population. Spain is currently the 8th country on pharmaceutical prescription with an expense of 14 x 10(9) euros in 2008. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of 33 pharmaceutically active compounds in specific points of the main rivers of the Madrid Region (MR) as well as tap water samples from the metropolitan area of Madrid. Additionally, a screening level risk characterization by means of the Hazard Quotient (HQ.) method was applied. A total of 25 pharmaceutical compounds and metabolites were detected in the 10 sampling points downstream the outlet of the major STPs of the MR. The highest concentrations were detected for the anticonvulsant carbamazepine and the stimulant caffeine. Concentrations for most of the analyzed compounds exceed levels previously reported in the literature. Moreover, we report the highest concentration of the cytostatic ifosfamide, detected for the first time in Spain in surface water. Preliminary risk characterization shows that a total of 16 compounds represent at least a low potential hazard based on their scored HQs, with five of them present in a concentration that exceeds the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). Toxic Units calculation indicates that for all the selected sampling points high hazard is anticipated from the presence of the analyzed compounds in the measured concentrations (TUs > 10). Caffeine and cotinine were detected in all (10) the analyzed tap water samples. Carbamazepine and nicotine were detected in six and venlafaxine in two samples. No studies venlafaxine in drinking water have been reported. These results clearly pinpoint the need for water quality monitoring and research in urban rivers, as well as the need for improved water treatment techniques able to eliminate this kind of compounds from the effluent waters as well as from drinking water sources.|
|Mompelat, S., Thomas, O. and Le Bot, B. (2011) Contamination levels of human pharmaceutical compounds in French surface and drinking water. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 13(10), 2929-2939.||The occurrence of 20 human pharmaceutical compounds and metabolites from 10 representative therapeutic classes was analysed from resource and drinking water in two catchment basins located in north-west France. 98 samples were analysed from 63 stations (surface water and drinking water produced from surface water). Of the 20 human pharmaceutical compounds selected, 16 were quantified in both the surface water and drinking water, with 22% of the values above the limit of quantification for surface water and 14% for drinking water). Psychostimulants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, iodinated contrast media and anxiolytic drugs were the main therapeutic classes of human pharmaceutical compounds detected in the surface water and drinking water. The results for surface water were close to results from previous studies in spite of differences in prescription rates of human pharmaceutical compounds in different countries. The removal rate of human pharmaceutical compounds at 11 water treatment units was also determined. Only caffeine proved to be resistant to drinking water treatment processes (with a minimum rate of 5%). Other human pharmaceutical compounds seemed to be removed more efficiently (average elimination rate of over 50%) by adsorption onto activated carbon and oxidation/disinfection with ozone or chlorine (not taking account of the disinfection by-products). These results add to the increasing evidence of the occurrence of human pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water that may represent a threat to human beings exposed to a cocktail of human pharmaceutical compounds and related metabolites and by-products in drinking water.|
|Fram, M.S. and Belitz, K. (2011) Occurrence and concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater used for public drinking-water supply in California. Science of the Total Environment 409(18), 3409-3417.||Pharmaceutical compounds were detected at low concentrations in 2.3% of 1231 samples of groundwater (median depth to top of screened interval in wells = 61 m) used for public drinking-water supply in California. Samples were collected statewide for the California State Water Resources Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. Of 14 pharmaceutical compounds analyzed, 7 were detected at concentrations greater than or equal to method detection limits: acetaminophen (used as an analgesic, detection frequency 032%, maximum concentration 1.89 mu g/L), caffeine (stimulant, 0.24%, 029 mu g/L), carbamazepine (mood stabilizer, 1.5%, 0.42 mu g/L), codeine (opioid analgesic, 0.16%, 0214 mu g/L), p-xanthine (caffeine metabolite, 0.08%, 0.12 mu g/L), sulfamethoxazole (antibiotic, 0.41%, 0.17 mu g/L), and trimethoprim (antibiotic, 0.08%, 0.018 mu g/L.). Detection frequencies of pesticides (33%), volatile organic compounds not including trihalomethanes (23%), and trihalomethanes (28%) in the same 1231 samples were significantly higher. Median detected concentration of pharmaceutical compounds was similar to those of volatile organic compounds, and higher than that of pesticides. Pharmaceutical compounds were detected in 33% of the 855 samples containing modern groundwater (tritium activity >0.2 TU). Pharmaceutical detections were significantly positively correlated with detections of urban-use herbicides and insecticides, detections of volatile organic compounds, and percentage of urban land use around wells. Groundwater from the Los Angeles metropolitan area had higher detection frequencies of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic compounds than groundwater from other areas of the state with similar proportions of urban land use. The higher detection frequencies may reflect that groundwater flow systems in Los Angeles area basins are dominated by engineered recharge and intensive groundwater pumping|
|Valcarcel, Y., Alonso, S.G., Rodriguez-Gil, J.L., Gil, A. and Catala, M. (2011) Detection of pharmaceutically active compounds in the rivers and tap water of the Madrid Region (Spain) and potential ecotoxicological risk. Chemosphere 84(10), 1336-1348.||Concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the order of ng L(-1) to sg L(-1) have been reported worldwide in waste, fluvial and even drinking water, raising concern about the efficacy of the currently employed waste water treatments in the elimination of this kind of compounds. Despite ranking 29th in terms of population. Spain is currently the 8th country on pharmaceutical prescription with an expense of 14 x 10(9) euros in 2008. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of 33 pharmaceutically active compounds in specific points of the main rivers of the Madrid Region (MR) as well as tap water samples from the metropolitan area of Madrid. Additionally, a screening level risk characterization by means of the Hazard Quotient (HQ.) method was applied. A total of 25 pharmaceutical compounds and metabolites were detected in the 10 sampling points downstream the outlet of the major STPs of the MR. The highest concentrations were detected for the anticonvulsant carbamazepine and the stimulant caffeine. Concentrations for most of the analyzed compounds exceed levels previously reported in the literature. Moreover, we report the highest concentration of the cytostatic ifosfamide, detected for the first time in Spain in surface water. Preliminary risk characterization shows that a total of 16 compounds represent at least a low potential hazard based on their scored HQs, with five of them present in a concentration that exceeds the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC). Toxic Units calculation indicates that for all the selected sampling points high hazard is anticipated from the presence of the analyzed compounds in the measured concentrations (TUs > 10). Caffeine and cotinine were detected in all (10) the analyzed tap water samples. Carbamazepine and nicotine were detected in six and venlafaxine in two samples. No studies venlafaxine in drinking water have been reported. These results clearly pinpoint the need for water quality monitoring and research in urban rivers, as well as the need for improved water treatment techniques able to eliminate this kind of compounds from the effluent waters as well as from drinking water sources.|
|Conn, K.E., Lowe, K.S., Drewes, J.E., Hoppe-Jones, C. and Tucholke, M.B. (2010) Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals and Consumer Product Chemicals in Raw Wastewater and Septic Tank Effluent from Single-Family Homes. Environmental Engineering Science 27(4), 347-356.||Septic System WW||Methods were modified and tested to monitor the occurrence of 20 pharmaceuticals and consumer product chemicals in raw wastewater and septic tank effluent (STE) from six single-family homes (two each located in Florida, Colorado, and Minnesota) each utilizing an onsite wastewater treatment system. Ten compounds were detected, including the stimulant caffeine, the metal-chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, the surfactant metabolite 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate, and the antimicrobial triclosan, which were present in all wastewater samples. Pharmaceutical occurrence and levels were more variable than consumer product chemicals; nonprescription anti-inflammatory drugs were the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals. Concentrations ranged from <1 mu g/L to > 1,000 mu g/L and varied by compound, site, and sampling event. No clear relationship between raw wastewater and STE composition existed. Raw wastewater composition, which previously has not been reported, reflected the per-capita water consumption and chemical-consuming activities at the source during the 24 h of sample collection. STE composition was likely affected by all consumptive activities during the tank hydraulic residence time (similar to 1 to 2 weeks) as well as differences in conditions between sites and at a single site over time (e. g., residence time, temperature, and load of organic compounds). Knowledge of source activities regarding the types, frequencies, and levels of pharmaceuticals and consumer product chemicals present in onsite wastewaters can aid in efforts to minimize potential risk to ecological and human health.|
|Rosal, R., Rodriguez, A., Perdigon-Melon, J.A., Petre, A., Garcia-Calvo, E., Gomez, M.J., Aguera, A. and Fernandez-Alba, A.R. (2010) Occurrence of emerging pollutants in urban wastewater and their removal through biological treatment followed by ozonation. Water Research 44(2), 578-588.||This work reports a systematic survey of over seventy individual pollutants in a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) receiving urban wastewater The compounds include mainly pharmaceuticals and personal care products, as well as some metabolites The quantification in the ng/L range was performed by Liquid Chromatography-QTRAP-Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry. The results showed that paraxanthine, caffeine and acetaminophen were the main individual pollutants usually found in concentrations over 20 ppb N-formyl-4-amino-antipiryne and galaxolide were also detected in the ppb level A group of compounds including the beta-blockers atenolol, metoprolol and propanolol, the lipid regulators bezafibrate and fenofibric acid, the antibiotics erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, the antiinflammatories diclofenac, indomethacin, ketoprofen and mefenamic acid, the antiepileptic carbamazepine and the antiacid omeprazole exhibited removal efficiencies below 20% in the STP treatment Ozonation with doses lower than 90 mu M allowed the removal of many individual pollutants including some of those more refractory to biological treatment A kinetic model allowed the determination of second order kinetic constants for the ozonation of bezafibrate, cotinine, diuron and metronidazole. The results show that the hydroxyl radical reaction was the major pathway for the oxidative transformation of these compounds.|
|Regnery, J. and Puttmann, W. (2010) Occurrence and fate of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in urban and remote surface waters in Germany. Water Research 44(14), 4097-4104.||Within this study, concentration levels and distribution of the organophosphates tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP), and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP) were investigated at nine lentic surface waters under different anthropogenic impact between June 2007 and October 2009. Furthermore, the possibility of in-lake photochemical degradation of the analytes was studied in laboratory experiments using spiked ultrapure water and lake water samples incubated in Teflon bottles (which transmit sunlight). TBEP, TiBP, and TnBP were photochemically degraded in spiked lake water samples upon exposure to sunlight. Organophosphate concentrations in the more remote lakes were often below or close to the limits of quantification (LOQ). TCPP was the substance with the highest median concentration in rural volcanic lakes (7-18 ng L-1) indicating an atmospheric transport of the compound. At urban lakes their median concentrations were in the range of 23-61. ng L-1 (TCEP), 85-126 ng L-1 (TCPP), <LOQ-53 ng L-1 (TBEP), 8-10 ng L-1 (TiBP), and 17-32 ng L-1 (TnBP). High variability but no significant seasonal trends were observed for all five organophosphates in urban lake water samples.|
|Schaider, L., Rudel, R., Dunagan, S., Ackerman, J., Perovich, L. and Brody, J. (2010) Emerging Contaminants in Cape Cod Drinking Water, Silent Spring Institute.||In October 2009, Silent Spring Institute, in collaboration with nine Cape Cod public water suppliers, tested for emerging contaminants in public drinking water supplies to learn more about how septic systems and other sources of groundwater contamination are affecting water quality on the Cape. The emerging contaminants we tested for were pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal care products, herbicides, alkylphenols, flame retardants and perfluorinated chemicals. Samples of untreated water from 20 wells and treated water from 2 distribution systems were tested for over 90 emerging contaminants altogether. Many of the target compounds, including pharmaceuticals, hormones, personal care products, herbicides, flameretardants and perfluorinated chemicals, have been found in other U.S. drinking water supplies.|
|NYC, DEP (2010) Occurrence of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in Source water of the New York City Water Supply.||NYC watershed, pristine source||The PPCP Monitoring Program was a one-year study initiated in January 2009 with water samples collected quarterly from the Catskill, Delaware, and Croton untreated source waters. Two samples (a sample and a duplicate) were collected by DEP from each of the three source waters for each quarterly event. The samples were analyzed by two contract laboratories using newly developed and highly sensitive analytical methods to look for a target group of 78 analytes that are representative of PPCPs in surface and groundwater sources, as well as effluent from wastewater treatment plants. Several industrial chemicals were also included in the target group of analytes. Due to the extremely low detection levels required for this study, DEP implemented strict quality control requirements for field sampling and laboratory analysis.|
|Ying, G.G., Kookana, R.S., Kumar, A. and Mortimer, M. (2009) Occurrence and implications of estrogens and xenoestrogens in sewage effluents and receiving waters from South East Queensland. Science of the Total Environment 407(18), 5147-5155.||We report a survey on the occurrence of estrogens (estrone, E1; 17 beta-estradiol, E2; 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol, EE2) and xenoestrogens (bisphenol-A, BPA: 4-t-octylphenol, 4-t-OP: 4-nonylphenols, 4-NP; and nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates, NPE1 and NPE2) in effluents from five wastewater treatment plants and their receiving waters in South Fast Queensland. The total xenoestrogen concentrations in effluent ranged between 2446 ng/L and 6579 ng/L, with 4-NP and NPE1-2 having much higher concentration levels than BPA and 4-t-OP. The estrogen levels in effluent varied from 9.12 to 32.22 ng/L for El, from 1.37 ng/L to 6.35 ng/L for E2 and from 0.11 ng/L to 1.20 ng/L for EE2. No significant differences (p<0.05) in the concentrations of the selected estrogenic compounds were found for the effluents from the five sewage treatment plants. The estrogens and xenoestrogens were also found in the receiving waters at relatively lower concentration levels due to dilution of effluents in the rivers. Based on the chemical analysis data and relative potency of the compound from in vitro and in vivo bioassays from the literature, the calculated in vitro EEQ values (estrogen equivalents) in the receiving river waters downstream of the effluent discharge points ranged from 1.32 to 11.79 ng/L, while the in vivo EEQ values (vitellogenin response in rainbow trout) ranged from 2.48 to 21.18 ng/L. The three estrogens accounted for the majority of the EEQ in the water samples. This study indicates that the rivers of South East Queensland are at potential risk.|
|Anderson, P., Denslow, N., Drewes, J.E., Olivieri, A., Schlenk, D., Scott, G.I. and Snyder, S. (2012) Monitoring Strategies for Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs) in California's Aquatic Ecosystem, Costa Mesa, CA.
Diamond, J., Thornton, K., Munkittrick, K., Kidd, K., Bartell, S. and Kapo, K. (2011) Diagnostic Tools to Evaluate Impacts of Trace Organic Compounds, Water Environment Research Foundation, Alexandria, VA.
|With the recent advent of improved analytical and biomarker detection capabilities, a variety of organic chemicals have been found in trace amounts (Trace Organic Chemicals, TOrCs) in surface waters and fish tissue. TOrCs include pharmaceuticals, personal care products, surfactants, pesticides, flame retardants, and other organic chemicals, some with unknown modes of action or effects. Identifying or predicting ecological effects of TOrCs in typical aquatic multi-stressor situations is challenging, requiring a variety of epidemiological tools that together, can diagnose effects at multiple scales of ecological organization. The goal of this research is to provide information on TOrCs to help the water quality community make scientifically defensible and cost effective decisions that are appropriately protective of aquatic populations and communities. Five objectives were addressed in this research: 1) develop and apply a procedure to prioritize which TOrCs are of most concern; 2) develop and test a conceptual site screening framework to determine if sites are or could be affected by TOrCs; 3) evaluate and test diagnostic approaches to identify potential risks due to TOrCs using various case studies; 4) develop a relational database and user interface with which the water resource community can enter, store, and search TOrC exposure and occurrence data in the U.S.; and 5) foster partnerships and transfer knowledge gained in this research to the water quality community. TOrC fate, effects, and occurrence data were compiled in a database for over 500 organic chemicals based on over 100 published studies representing more than 50 organizations and 700 sites. Alternative risk-based prioritization processes and draft lists of high priority TOrCs were developed. A preliminary site screening and diagnostic framework was developed and evaluated using seven different case study sites. EPA’s causal analysis (stressor identification) procedures, Canada’s Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) procedure, the ecosystem model CASM (Comprehensive Aquatic System Model), and several other specialized diagnostic tools were used and evaluated. A relational database based on Tetra Tech’s EDAS2 was developed using the Microsoft platform. The modified version of EDAS2, built on the EPA WQX data model, provides web-based data queries using a combination of tabular data for downloads and a visual map interface that allows the user to view, query, and select sites from the map having chemical or biological data. This final report summarizes all approaches used and results obtained in this research; discusses critical data gaps and other important uncertainties, and provides testable hypotheses and recommendations for Phase 2 testing and analyses.|
|Snyder, S.A., Vanderford, B.J., Drewes, J.E., Dickenson, E., Snyder, E.M., Bruce, G.M. and Pleus, R.C. (2008) State of Knowledge of Endocrine Disruptors and Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water, AWWA Research Foundation, Denver, CO.|