Designing an I/O System
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The art of I/O system design is to find a design that meets goals for cost, dependability and variety of devices while avoiding bottlenecks in I/O performance. Avoiding bottlenecks means that components must be balanced between main memory and I/O devices, because performance - and hence effective cost performance - can only be good at the weakest link in the I/O chain.

The architect must plan for expansion, both in numbers and types of I/O devices, so that customers can tailor the I/O to their applications. Finally, storage must be dependable, adding new constraints on proposed designs.

  Below is a series of steps to follow in designing an I/O system. The answers to each step may be dictated by market requirements or simply by cost, performance, and availability goals.

The diagram below shows an example of I/O organization of a computer system.