CEE 577

Spring 2006


Ware River Waste Load Allocations


Part A: Streeter-Phelps Simplified Wasteload Allocation (BOD/DO):


               Problem Statement  Use the extended Streeter-Phelps equation (including CBOD deoxygenation, NBOD deoxygenation, and SOD) and model the Ware River from the Ware WWTP discharge (river mile 10.8) to its confluence with the Swift River (river mile 0.8).  Consider only the Ware WWTP discharge (2 MGD design flow), although other point and nonpoint sources may exist.

               Work in groups of about three, and prepare one report per group.  The report should include stream DO predictions and graphical profiles in accordance with the analysis of treatments and requirements of the sensitivity analysis.  These profiles should cover the region from the outfall to at least 2 miles downstream of the minimum.  Model coefficients and important assumptions must be presented in a clear fashion.  A series of recommendations should be made outlining: (1) the necessary level of treatment for the Ware WWTP; and (2) the model coefficients that must be better defined before Ware should be forced to take action.


               The design conditions are the 7Q10 flow and 27oC throughout.



1. Determination of Stream Geometry for Streeter-Phelps analysis

a. Establish a number of separate reaches corresponding to differences in stream geometry and kinetic coefficients.

b. Determine the drainage area - flow coefficient for the:

                           i. 7Q10 conditions  (see part c, pg 61),

                           ii. 1972 time of travel study (see part a, pg 106), and

                           iii. 1973 time of travel study (see part a, pg 107)

c. Calculate average flows in each of the reaches for the 7Q10 conditions, the day of the 1972 time-of-travel study, and the day of the 1973 time-of-travel study based on the above coefficient and the drainage areas (see part d, pg 56).

d. Determine the velocity-flow coefficients, "c" and "d" (from U=cQd) for each reach using the time of travel data (part a, pg 106-107) and flows based on drainage areas (part d, pg 56).  Then determine 7Q10 velocities for each of the six reaches.

e. Calculate the depth-flow coefficient, "a"  (from H=aQb) and then the average depth under 7Q10 conditions for each reach.

i. Assume the depth exponential coefficient, b=0.3  (i.e., H=aQ0.3).

ii. The following depth data were collected on a day that the flow at the Gibbs Crossing USGS gage was 84 cfs:



River Mile

Avg Depth (ft)















10.8- 8.8


 8.8- 5.8


 5.8- 4.4


 4.4- 3.1


 3.1- 2.3


 2.3- 0.8



2. Use the Simplified Analytical Method for Waste Load Allocations

 (Although strictly speaking, the USEPA does not recommend that this method be used with a river as large as the Ware).  Considering the number of calculations required for the sensitivity analysis, the development of a computer program or use of a computer spreadsheet is highly recommended.   (do not forget to adjust kinetic coefficients to the design temperature)


               Additional notes:

i.              This section of the Ware River is designated as a warm water fishery (i.e., the instantaneous ambient dissolved oxygen standard is 5 mg/L)

ii.             Assume that the unionized ammonia ambient water quality standard for a warm water fishery under these conditions is 0.006 mg/L.

iii.            Assume the water immediately upstream of the outfall has the following characteristics:

                      5 mg/L  Ultimate BOD                                0.10 mg/L  total ammonia

                                                                pH 7.0,  10 mg/L alkalinity                         7.5 mg/L dissolved oxygen

iv.            The Ware WWTP effluent has an alkalinity of 15 mg/L, a pH of 6.8 and a dissolved oxygen concentration of 7.5 mg/L.

v.             Assume that the sediment oxygen demand is elevated to a distance of 0.3 miles downstream of the Ware WWTP discharge.

vi.            Assume that this stretch of the Ware River has an unstable, muddy bottom.

vii.           In your sensitivity analysis, consider temperatures in the range of 25oC to 30oC.


               References   (I believe I have enough copies for each group to have their own)

"The Chicopee River Basin" (1972-1976), Massachusetts Division of Water Pollution Control (DEQE).

               part a, Water Quality Survey

               part c, Water Quality Analysis

               part d, Water Quality Management Plan


Part B: QUAL2K Wasteload Allocation (BOD/DO/Nutrients/Algae):



Work in the same groups of 2 or 3 for this project as you did for the first part of the Ware River study.  Download the latest version of QUAL2K from the EPA website (http://www.epa.gov/ATHENS/wwqtsc/html/qual2k.html).  Install it on the computer you wish to use.  Use the Ware River Data and results from your first design project to prepare the following:



1.                  Use the existing input file and simplify so that the model results can be easily tested against a Streeter-Phelps calculation.  This can be significantly simpler that what you did in Part A.  I would recommend a uniform channel geometry, flow and only a single point BOD load in the first segment.  Compare the QUAL2K results with what you calculate using the Streeter-Phelps equation (e.g., with a spreadsheet).

2.                  Prepare an input file and run QUAL2K with BOD, DO and Nitrogen modeling.  (Note: do not choose "trapezoidal channels".  Run the model and graph dissolved oxygen across the entire length of interest.  Do these results match those that you obtained in the first part of the Ware River design project?  Discuss.

3.                  Modify input file to include algal, temperature and phosphorous modeling.  Use your best estimates for the required parameters.  In many cases you may wish to use the default values.  (Note: I advise you to use the "daily-temp" light averaging option.  I also advise an algal settling velocity of below 0.2 ft/d, and an algal preference factor for ammonia of about 0.5).  Run the model and examine the output.  Prepare a graph of dissolved oxygen and any other water quality parameters you deem important.  Compare the DO plot with that which was produced in #1 of this design project.  Discuss.



Prepare a brief report (1 per group) that summarizes what you've done.  This should include your general methodology as well as the plots and discussion.




Project Assigned: 4 April 06

Draft Report on Part A1: Due 11 April 06

Draft Report on Part A2: Due 20 April 06

Draft Report on Part B: Due 2 May 06

Final Report (Parts A&B): Due 9 May 06